You are invited to submit your manuscript for possible inclusion in Life and Science Journal. The journal solicits high-quality papers related to the broad scope of clinical and transitional research. We encourage submission of original research in compliance with journal’s editorial policy. Areas of interest for us include, but are not limited to clinical trials, basic sciences, health professions education and public health

Instructions to Authors
All manuscripts should conform to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editor’s (ICMJE) recommendations and Life and Science’s instructions to author. Only online submissions are accepted by Life and Science. The manuscript should be submitted in word document format by the corresponding author through online Open Journal System (OJS) along with signed certificates for Authorship, Declaration, Conflict of Interest and Checklist. The corresponding author will be responsible for ensuring that the article has been spell checked and grammar checked. The manuscript must include structured abstract, figures, tables, boxes and appendices that are necessary in reporting the study findings in accordance with study design. Word counts are limited (refer to Article Type).

Article Type
The following types of manuscripts are accepted at Life and Science journal:

Original Article
The original articles must be relevant to the aim and scope of the journal. It should have a structured abstract with 3 – 6 keywords as per MeSH and not more than 6 tables or figures. The data should be supported with no more than 50 references, majority of which should be from last five years.

  • Systematic review / Meta-analysis
    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of clinical trials must be reported according to PRISMA or QUOROM guidelines. It should not exceed 4000 words and should have an abstract of 450 – 500 words.
  • Clinical trials
    According to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editor’s recommendations (ICMJE), only registered clinical trials (clinicaltrial.gov/ISRCTN/DRAP) will be consider for publication in Life and Science.
    Reports of trial must conform to the CONSORT guidelines and should be submitted with their protocols.
  • Observational Studies
    Observational studies including cohort, case-control and cross sectional studies, are an important part of clinical research paradigm but are vulnerable to bias and discriminatory reporting. Its highly recommended to conform to STROBE checklist while reporting these studies. Manuscript should not exceed 4000 words and should have an abstract of 300 words.
  • Review Article
    A review article should consist of critical overview/analysis of a topic of interest providing the background and recent developments with reference to original literature. It should not exceed 4000 words with 50 references and should have an abstract of no more than 300 words with 3 – 6 key words as per MeSH.

Case Reports
Life and Science accepts academic and unusual reports of clinical cases as well as articles about real cases for publication. Case reports should not exceed 1800 words with 10 -15 references and maximum five tables / figures / photomicrographs. All authors of case reports are required to fill in the CARE checklist and attach it with their case reports

Short Communication
Short communication should be complete work, not merely a preliminary report. It should not exceed more than 2000 words with maximum two figures / table with an abstract of no more than 200 words and 12-15 references

Letters
Letters to the editor may include academic opinions related to articles published in Life and Science within the last three months. The Editor reserves the right to rephrase/condense/redact according to the journal policy and sends for peer review if the letter contains scientific data. A letter may be directed to concerned author for a reply which may also be published. A letter should not be more than 500 words, without headings, include not more than five references and should be signed by all the authors (maximum three are allowed)

Terms of Submissions
Manuscript must be submitted on the understanding that they are unpublished and are currently not under consideration by another journal. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the article’s publication has been approved by all the coauthors. In case of multicenter studies, it is the responsibility of each author to obtain approval of the relevant institution. An acknowledgment from the editorial office officially establishes the date of receipt. All correspondence and proofs will be sent to corresponding author unless otherwise indicated. It is a condition of submission of a paper that the authors permit editing of the paper for readability.

Contributors
All authors should meet the conditions specified by the ICMJE and COPE guidelines http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf . Relevant contributions must be declared for each author which may include study conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript and critical revision at the end of article

Formatting Guide Lines 
Manuscript must be typed in 1.5 paragraph spacing on A4 paper (21.0 x 29.70 cm) with 2.5 cm margin on both sides. Main title should be in 16 point Calibri font bold, headings in 14 point bold and text in 12 point.
Paragraphs indented and left aligned with bottom central page numbering.

Manuscript Title Page
The title page should provide following information:

  • Title (up to 25 words): Identifies the topic / research question, study population, study settings, study design (if applicable) with no abbreviations
  • Full author names: separate each name with comma, no full stops after initials.
  • Address for each author: separate each address name with comma
  • Corresponding author details: give full address of corresponding author along with email ID and contact number

Abstract
The abstract should be self-contained, citation-free and in a semi structured paragraph with objectives, study design, study settings, participants, methodology, results and conclusion briefly explained. Also include a trial registration number if applicable. It must not exceed 300 words, but for CONSORT or PRISMA style abstract word count may go up to 450 – 500 words.

Key Words
Three to six keywords (MeSH) in alphabetical order should be provided.

Introduction
This section should be succinct, without subheadings including background, rationale followed by a gap statement and objectives of the study

Materials and Methods
This section should contain sufficient details for purpose of reproducibility of methodology/ procedure.
Subsections can be made for description of more than one method and explanation of sample size, sampling techniques, data collection procedures/techniques/experiments and statistical methods with relevant software program should be given

Results
This section may be subdivided if required. Extra or supplementary materials can be placed in an appendix which will be available in the electronic version of the journal. Please include following terms in result’s section of your article:

  • For clinical trials: Event rates among experimental and control groups, relative risk reduction (RRR), number needed to treat / number needed to harm (NNT/NNH) and its 95% confidence interval or if the trial is of public health intervention number helped per 1000 or 100,000)
  • For cohort study: Odds ratio (OR) for strength of association between exposure and outcome along with 95% confidence interval
  • For diagnostic test study: Sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (PPV/NPV)

Discussion
The discussion should emphasize on principle findings of the study in relation to other studies discussing important similarities & differences, strengths & weaknesses of the study, possible explanations / implications for clinicians and/or policy makers and future research aspects.

Conclusion
The conclusion should be precise and supported by results of the study

Acknowledgements
All acknowledgments (if any) should be included at the end of the paper before the references and follow ICMJE recommendations. Funding sources/sponsors should be mentioned separately with grant identification number

Appendices
Appendix must have a title and begin on a separate page. It must be labeled with an alphabet (A,B,C). Tables and figures within an appendix should be labeled by Arabic numerals added to the alphabets of the appendix (Table A.1; Fig A.1)

References
References must be cited consecutively as superscript numerical in parentheses. Vancouver style of referencing should be followed (http://guides.lib.monash.edu/citing referencing/vancouver)

Figures
Computer prepared images must be at minimum of 300 dpi at the final publication size and should be submitted as JPEG or TIFF format file. All figures should be cited in the paper in a consecutive order. Photographs, X-rays, CT scans, MRI and photomicrographs should be sent in digital format with a minimum resolution of 3.2 mega pixels in JPEG compression. If photographs of patients are used they should not be identifiable or must be accompanied by written consent of the patient allowing its publication. Written permission must be sought to use previously published figures. Graphs or scatter plot or histograms should be submitted along with their numerical data. Legends for photomicrographs should indicate the magnification, internal scale and the method of staining. Figure legends should be provided on a separate page of the main manuscript document

Tables
Each table should be given on a separate page, paginated as part of the manuscript. Tables should be provided as editable text constructed in Microsoft Word using Table function and not images, single spaced without vertical lines, numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and labeled with a descriptive title. Units of numerical measurement should be written in the column heading and all abbreviations explained in the footnote.

Units of Measurement
Units of measurement should be consistent throughout the manuscript. System International (SI) or Imperial system may be used.

Conflict of Interest
Any financial/ personal conflict of interest that might influence the results/ interpretations of the study must be disclosed.

Plagiarism Policy
Life and Science follows the guidelines of ICMJE, PMDC and HEC for any kind of plagiarism. These guidelines can be accessed at www.icmje.orgwww.pmdc.gov.pk and www.Hec.gov.pk . Author is advised to go through these guidelines before submitting their manuscript with Life and Science. The cases of plagiarism will be dealt according to rules and regulations/recommendation of the ICMJE, PMDC and HEC. The disciplinary committee of Life and Science comprises of the staff, Managing Editors and Editor in Chief to deal with cases of plagiarism. Furthermore, authors are advised to submit a similarity index report generated by anti plagiarism software “TURNITIN”. Articles with similarity index more than 19% will not be accepted for processing.

Ethical Consideration
Authors are required to provide approval letter from their respective Institutional Review Board / Biomedical Ethical Committee / IACUC for all human and animal subject research. As a statement in the manuscript the author must mention that the study obtained ethical approval, including the name of ethics committee or institutional review board, the number/ID of the approval, and also that participants gave informed consent before taking part. In case of photographs or other identifiable material the author should report that patients have provided their signed consent to publication of such material.

Declaration
The authors are required to submit signed Authorship, Declaration, Conflict of Interest and Checklist.
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