Objective: To compare the difference in frequency of postoperative sore throat, dysphagia, hoarseness and cough after nasal septal surgery between pharyngeal packings soaked in normal saline, soluble aspirin or ketorolac.
Study Design: A comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried at ENT Department of Combined Military Hospital, Risalpur from July 2017 to June 2018.
Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 180 patients of both genders, aged between 20-50 years. Cases were randomly allocated into three groups of 60 each. In group A (control), postoperative pharyngeal packing was done with ribbon gauze impregnated with 50 ml normal saline, in group B (soluble aspirin group) packing was done with gauze impregnated in 50 ml of normal saline in which 300 mg of soluble aspirin was dissolved, whereas in group C (ketorolac group) packing was done with gauze impregnated in 50 ml of normal saline in which 30 mg of ketorolac was dissolved.
Results: In group A, 10 patients (16.7%) complained of sore throat, 8 (13.3%) dysphagia, 11 (18.3%) hoarseness and 12 (20%) cough. In group B, 4 (6.7%) patients complained of sore throat, 3 (5%) dysphagia, 3 (5%) hoarseness and 4 (6.7%) cough whereas in group C, 3 (5%) patients complained sore throat, 1 (1.7%) dysphagia, 2 (3.3%) hoarseness and 4 (6.7%) cough. All parameters were significantly raised (p<0.001) in group A as compared to group B and C whereas there was no significant difference found in the parameters between group B and C except dysphagia which was significantly lower (p<0.001) in group C as compared to group B.
Conclusion: Use of soluble aspirin or ketorolac impregnated pharyngeal packing significantly reduced frequency of post-operative sore throat, dysphagia, hoarseness and cough as compared to simple normal saline impregnated packing among patients undergoing nasal surgery.
Key Words: Ketorolac, Pharyngeal Packing, Soluble Aspirin, Sore Throat.
How to cite this: Maka TA, Rehman A, Ali S. Evaluation of Medicated Pharyngeal Pack for Prevention of Postoperative Sore Throat following Nasal Septal Surgery. Life and Science. 2020; 1(1): 33-36. doi: https://doi.org/10.37185/L&S.1.1.16
Objective: To find out the pattern of Liver Function tests (LFTs) in different spectrums of Acute Viral Hepatitis
Study Design: Cross sectional.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Pathology Department of Combined Military Hospital, Malir Karachi from March 2017 to August 2017.
Materials and Methods: A total of 360 subjects of all age groups, both male and female, with biochemical features of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) were included. After clinical history and examination, liver function tests (LFTs) were performed that included total bilirubin, alanine amino transferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), followed by viral markers for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV).
Results: Among the 360 patients studied, males (n=308, 86%) outnumbered females (n=52, 14%). Biochemical pattern showed ALT value reaching >75 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). Similarly rise of serum total bilirubin was up to 30 times of ULN while rise of serum ALP was not more than 5 times of ULN. HEV was found to be the most common (28%) in seropositive AVH in the study group. Highest number (24.4%) of HEV infection was found among males in the age group of 20-30 years. ALT and bilirubin were significantly raised in patients with HEV as compared to other causes of AVH.
Conclusion: Pattern of LFTs varies in spectrum of AVH. Highest rise of ALT indicates extensive liver damage in HEV infection.
Key Words: AVH, HEV, LFTs.
How to cite this: Yousaf S, Younas M, Murtaza M, Akhtar F, Jaffar SR, Ijaz A. Pattern of Liver Function Test in Spectrum of Acute Viral Hepatitis. Life and Science. 2020; 1(1): 28-32. doi: http://doi.org/10.37185/LnS.1.1.38
Objective: To compare early versus interval tonsillectomy in cases of peritonsillar abscess.
Study Design: Comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at ENT Department of Combined Military Hospital,Mardan from January 2017 to January 2018.
Materials and Methods: A total 50 patients were selected from ENT outpatient department. All the cases were randomly divided into two groups of 25 each. Group A underwent early tonsillectomy after initial incision and drainage, Group B underwent interval tonsillectomy after 6 weeks. Both the groups were compared in terms of perioperative blood loss, operation time, ease of dissection and postoperative complications including pain and hemorrhage. Tonsillectomy was done with bipolar cautery in all the cases.
Results: The mean age was 30.22 + 8.25. Out of 50 patients, 42 (84%) were males and 8 (16%) were females. The mean operative time of surgery in group A (early tonsillectomy) was 45.04+5.78 minutes compared to 32.72+4.37 minutes for group B (interval tonsillectomy (p=0.00). Mean post-operative pain in group A was 3.68+2.12 compared to group B where mean score was 3.36+1.93 (p=0.579). There were 3 cases of mild perioperative blood loss, 19 cases of moderate and 3 of severe perioperative blood loss in group A. There were 18 cases of mild perioperative blood loss, 7 cases of moderate and no case of severe perioperative blood loss in group B (p=0.00). Dissection was found to be significantly easier in group B (interval tonsillectomy). There were 7 cases of post-op secondary hemorrhage in group A compared to 3 in group B (p=0.289). All these cases of secondary hemorrhage were managed conservatively.
Conclusion: Interval tonsillectomy is a safer procedure as compared to early tonsillectomy in terms of perioperative blood loss, operative time, dissection with almost similar post-op pain and similar risk of post tonsillectomy hemorrhage.
Key Words: Early Tonsillectomy, Interval Tonsillectomy, Peritonsillar Abscess.
How to cite this: Khan MA, Ahmed A, Khan M. Comparison of Early versus Interval Tonsillectomy in Cases of Peritonsillar Abscess. Life and Science. 2020; 1(1): 23-27. doi: https://doi.org/10.37185/LnS.1.1.13
Objective: To assess the frequency of antibiotic use with or without prescription and the source of purchasing antibiotics in relation to social determinants among residents of Wah, Pakistan.
Study Design: Cross sectional.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the community of Wah Cantt from January 2017 to December 2017.
Materials and Methods: A two stage cluster random sampling technique was used. 400 participants aged 16 years and older, completed the validated questionnaire. Chi-square test of significance was applied to determine the relationship between categorical variables and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Use of antibiotics in the preceding month was reported by 110 (27.6%) participants, 101 (25.3%) reported having taken antibiotics in the last six months. Use of antibiotics was more in males in all categories as compared to females (chi-square= 15.778, p = 0.008). The analysis showed that individuals between 55-64 years of age had taken antibiotics in last month (69.2%). Government employees showed the highest percentage (36.5%) of respondents who consumed antibiotics in last one month as compared to any other profession. Overall, most respondents 277 (82.7%) reported that they got their antibiotics on a prescription from doctors.
Conclusion: Effective education along with close vigilance for the judicious use of antibiotic prescribing should be aimed at both the prescribers and the public. Better knowledge is associated with correct behavior of antibiotic/antimicrobial use.
Key Words: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Consumption, Antibiotic Prescription, Antibiotic Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance.
How to cite this: Shan H, Javaid A, Zeb A, Maqbool S. Socio Demographic Aspects of Antibiotic Consumption Practices in Residents of Wah. Life and Science. 2020; 1(1): 16-22. doi: http://doi.org/10.37185/LnS.1.1.28
Objective: To investigate the frequency of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by screening 16 to 30 months old children, reporting to a tertiary care hospital.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Paediatrics Outpatient Department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from November 2017 to August 2018.
Materials and Methods: A total of 163 children between the age of 16-30 months were screened using Urdu translated version of Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, revised with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/FTM). Those who screened positive on MCHAT-R were assessed using Childhood Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS 2) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) as diagnostic tools.
Results: Among the 163 children screened with MCHAT, 33 were found positive for autism. The positive individuals were further assessed on CARS-2 and DSM-5; five children were diagnosed with ASD at moderate to severe level. This study has shown that 3% of children visiting the hospital for various reasons suffer from ASD.
Conclusion: This study concluded that 3% of the children coming to the hospital for any purpose were found to have ASD. There is a need to make Level 1 screening an essential part of regular check-ups of children in Paediatrics outpatient clinics.
Key Words: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Prevalence, Screening.
How to cite this: Farooq A, Ahmed S. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children up to Age 2.5 years in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Life and Science. 2020; 1(1): 11-15. doi: http://doi.org/10.37185/LnS.1.1.74
Objective: To determine the perception of medical students about factors affecting academic performance and to associate them with academic performance.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Community Medicine at Wah Medical College, Wah Cantt from January 2018 to August 2018.
Materials and Methods: After explaining purpose of the study and taking informed consent, questionnaires were distributed to students and collected after two days. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 19. Frequency tables and charts were constructed for qualitative and quantitative variables accordingly. Association of academic performance with factors affecting academic performance were determined by chi-square.
Results: The factors that affect the academic performance most were parental concern (87.2%), time spent on social media (78.4%), influence of friends (74.4%), silence during study (88.8%) and style of teaching (80.8%). Significant association was found between academic performance and place of residence, daily breakfast, peer academic performance, night study and joining medical profession on own will.
Conclusion: Supervision by parents, academically competent peers, apposite institutional environment, pertinent use of media and good teaching strategies mostly affect the academic performance.
Key Words: Gender, Parenting, Social Media.
How to cite this: Khan KW, Ramzan M, Zia Y, Zafar Y, Khan M, Saeed H. Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Medical Students. Life and Science. 2020; 1(1): 7-10. doi: https://doi.org/10.37185/LnS.1.1.45
Objective: Screening of ZINC inhibitors library for Zika virus (ZIKV) Non Structural 5 (NS5) protein as potential drug target.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Biological Sciences of National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from December 2018 to March 2019.
Materials and Methods: NS5 protein was obtained from Protein data bank (PDB ID: 5TMH) and screened against ZINC library of 11,193 drug-like molecules for NS5 and 3 ligands were identified based on optimum binding energy. MOE, PyMOL and CLUSTALW were used for docking studies and structural analysis.
Results: Out of 11, 193 compounds, three ligands were observed to interact with residues of the Methyl Transferase (MT) domain of NS5. These ligands fit in the MT domain by making hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions in the active site and S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) binding pocket.
Conclusion: Hence, upon experimental validation, these ligands can be utilized as potential inhibitors against NS5 MT activity to control ZIKV viral replication and ultimately control the disease.
Key Words: Docking, Ligands, Protein, Zika Virus.
How to cite this: Faheem M, Jamal SB. Identification of Zika Virus NS5 Novel Inhibitors through Virtual Screening and Docking Studies. Life and Science. 2020; 1(1): 2-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.37185/LnS.1.1.42