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Journal Policy

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available for education and research but not for commercial purposes, without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, print or search links to the full texts of the articles or use them for any other lawful purpose except for commercialization, provided the author and the journal are credited and cited. Life and Science is committed to follow best practicing guidelines on editorial independence, code on good publication practices produced by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and recommendation by International Committee of Medical Journal Editor (ICMJE).

  1. Author and Non-Author Contributors
The journal considers corresponding author as the one who takes primary responsibility for responding to editorial queries in a timely way during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process. The journal considers authorship on following four criteria as recommended by ICMJE:
  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
  • Final approval of the version to be published;
  1. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Contributors who meet fewer than all four of the above criteria for authorship are not considered as authors but as non-author contributors and should be acknowledged. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author, not the journal, to determine that all people named as authors meet all four criteria and to ensure non-author contributors are acknowledged. In case if submitted manuscript is authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly identify the group name and members as authors. The journal requires submission of a signed Authorship and Contribution Declaration form by the corresponding author, clearly stating each author’s last name against following appropriate categories.
  1. Study conception and design
  2. Accusation of data
  • Analysis and interpretation of data
  1. Drafting of manuscript
  2. Critical revisions
The journal will not accept any request of removal or addition of an author after manuscript submission or publication.
  • Responsibilities of Authors, Journal, Reviewer and Publisher in the Submission and Review Process:
1.  Author:
  • Authors should abide by all principles of authorship and declaration of conflict of interest in the submission process.
  • Authors will be responsible for any information written/informed/reported in the submitted manuscript. It is author's responsibility to obtain signed permission from the copyright holder to use and reproduce text, illustrations, tables, etc., published previously in other journals, electronic or print media.
  • Authors are not permitted to post the work on any website/blog/forum/board or at any other place, by any means, from the time such work is submitted to the Life and Science until the final decision on the paper has been given to them. In case a manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors may not post the work in its entirety on any website/blog/forum/board or at any other place, by any means, till the paper is published in the Life and Science.
  • The authors may, however, post the title, authors’ names and their affiliations and abstract, with the following statement on the first page of the paper - "The manuscript has been accepted for publication in the Life and Science". After publication of the article, it may be posted anywhere with full journal citation included.
  • Before acceptance of a manuscript for publication, a corresponding author and all co-authors of the manuscript will sign and submit a completed the http://lifenscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Authorship-certificate-table-updated.pdf
2.  Journal:
The responsibilities of the journal in the submission and review process are as under:
  • The journal considers manuscripts as author’s private communications which are not to be disclosed. The editors will not share information about manuscript and will safely store and archive the files. In case when a manuscript is not accepted, the editor will delete copies of it from their editorial systems.
  • When a manuscript is published the journals will keep copies of the original submission, reviews, revisions, and correspondence for at least three years.
3.  Confidentiality:
  • Confidentiality may have to be breached if scientific misconduct is alleged, but editors will notify authors or reviewers if they intend to do so.
4.  Timeliness:
  • The journal follows a time-bared processing of manuscripts
  • The editor will ensure timely communication to the author regarding manuscript acceptance. Any planned delays in publication will be negotiated with the author.
5.  Peer Review:
  • It is the responsibility of the editor of journal to ensure selection of appropriate reviewers and that the reviewers have access to all relevant materials for evaluation.
  • However the journal is under no obligation to send submitted manuscripts for review, and to follow reviewer recommendations either favorable or negative, as the final decision for selection of all contents lies with the editor of the journal.
  • The journal acknowledges the contribution of peer reviewers to their journal by publishing their names.
  • As true scientific peer review begins only after the paper is published, the journal encourages the readers to submit comments, questions, or criticisms about published articles in letter to editor section. Authors will have a responsibility to respond appropriately.
6.  Integrity:
  • The editorial decision to consider publication of studies with findings that are not statistically significant or that have inconclusive or negative findings, is based upon the manuscript’s novelty, quality and scientific contribution.
7.    Reviewer:
  • It is the responsibility of the reviewer to keep manuscripts strictly confidential.
  • The reviewers must not retain the manuscript for their personal use and should destroy copies of manuscripts after submitting their reviews.
  • Reviewers are expected to respond promptly to requests to review and to submit reviews within the time agreed.
The journal considers conflict of interest when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patients’ welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain). The journal requires that all participants in the peer-review and publication process including authors, peer reviewers, editors, and editorial board members must disclose all relationships that could be viewed as potential conflicts of interest. Submission of a signed disclosure of Conflicts of Interest certificate by all authors is mandatory. The manuscript will be published with the disclosure and sources of funding.
Conflict of interest statements must be provided at the end of the article. If no conflict of interest is mentioned by the authors, the following statement will be used by the publisher by default: "The authors declare no conflict of interest." Authors are required to disclose any sponsorship or funding received from any institution relating to their research. The editor(s) will determine what disclosures, if any, should be available to the readers.
The Life and Science aims to preserve all the published content on digital repositories. In order to follow that, the Life and Science commits to submit the metadata of all its manuscripts to LOCKSS as we have recently implemented the use of the OJS (Open Journal System). This service is free for the OJS users. This is to ensure the availability of the published scholarly content by Life and Science to the community despite any accidental loss of data in its personal archival records. Life and Science has further ensured that the metadata of all of its open access articles is compatible to all the well-known repository services and their digital crawlers may regularly collect it for record and preservation. Besides,  Life and Science also assigns Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) to all its issues and the contents to facilitate reaching their permanent links on the internet.
Brief Summary of the License Agreement Life and Science follow an open-access publishing policy and full text of all published articles is available free, immediately upon publication of an issue. The journal’s contents are published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) license. Thus, the work submitted to the journal implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors (neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere). By submitting your research article(s) to the Life and Science, you agree to Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which states that:
Share— copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
The copyright holder of the published article is Life and Science.
  1. Correction and Retractions / Republications and Version control
The journal discusses matters of debates as letters to the editor or as print/electronic correspondence, or as posts in a journal-sponsored online forum. The journal considers all updates of previous publications (e.g., an updated systematic review or clinical guideline) as new publication rather than a version of a previously published article A correction will be published in the journal if honest scientific error of fact is made The journal will follow ICMJE standards for publication of correction:
  • The journal will publish a correction notice as soon as possible detailing changes from and citing the original publication; the correction will be on the electronic or numbered print page that is included in an electronic or a print Table of Contents to ensure proper indexing.
  • The journal will also post a new article version with details of the changes from the original version and the date(s) on which the changes were
  • The journal will archive all prior versions of the article. This archive will be made available to the reader on
  • Previous electronic versions will prominently note that there are more recent versions of the
  • The citation will be to the most recent version
  • The journal will have the right to retract any published article if the scientific errors invalidate results, interpretations and
  • Retraction with republication by the journal will only be consider when the errors are judged to be unintentional, but has led to a major change in the direction or significance of the results, interpretations, and In this case, if the changed version of the paper survives further review and editorial scrutiny, only then retraction with republication of the changed paper will be considered, with an explanation to allow full correction of the scientific literature.
ii.   Scientific misconduct, expressions of concern and retraction: The journal encourages reviewers / readers to comment on ethical issues, validity of submitted research paper, so as to identify subtle and/or blatant type of plagiarism, research and publication misconduct (e.g. inappropriate research design, incomplete detail on participant’s consent, data manipulation)   Scientific misconduct includes data fabrication and falsification. Data falsification includes deceptive manipulation of images and plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined by HEC Plagiarism Policy as "taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one's own". These include but are not limited to the following:
  • Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of another author's paper or unpublished report without citing the exact
  • Copying elements of another author's paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the
  • Verbatim copying portions of another author's paper or from reports by citing but not clearly differentiating what text has been copied (e.g. not applying quotation marks correctly) and /or not citing the source
  • The unacknowledged use of computer programs, mathematical / computer models / algorithms, computer software in all forms, macros, spreadsheets, web pages, databases, mathematical deviations and calculations, designs / models / displays of any sort, diagrams, graphs, tables, drawings, works of art of any sort, fine art pieces or artifacts,
digital images, computer-aided design drawings, GIS files, photographs, maps, music / composition of any sort, posters, presentations and tracing.
  • Self-plagiarism that is, the verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original
  The journal carries objective check through Turnitin and/or searching for similar titles to the submitted research paper. The journal will carry out individual assessment of each case of alleged scientific misconduct. An investigation committee headed by the editor will contact the corresponding author with his enclosed signed authorship statement and documentary evidence of misconduct, for an explanatory response. If the investigation proves scientific misconduct, then the journal will publish a retraction of the article. The journal will prominently label the retraction, on electronic or numbered print page or a print table of contents.
iii.  Copy right: The journal follows the Creative Common attribution non-commercial license.
iv. Duplicate submission: The journal considers duplicate submission as submission of the same manuscript in same or different languages simultaneously to more than one journal. The journal does not accept any duplicate submission. Authors will require a signed declaration stating that the manuscript has not been submitted elsewhere. All submitted manuscripts without such signed declaration will be rejected.
v. Duplicate and prior publication The journal considers duplicate publication as a publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published, but without clear, visible reference to the previous publication. The journal does not accept any duplicate publication. The journal does not consider following as duplicate / prior publication:
  • A complete report that follows publication of a preliminary report, such as a letter to the editor, a preprint, or an abstract or poster displayed at a scientific
  • Any paper that has been presented at a scientific meeting but was not published in full
  • In the event of a public health emergency, information with immediate implications for public health should be disseminated without concern that this will preclude subsequent consideration for publication in a journal
 vi.  Acceptable secondary publication: The journal considers secondary publication as materials published in other journals or online justifiable and beneficial, especially when intended to disseminate important information to the widest possible audience (e.g., guidelines produced by government agencies and professional organizations in the same or a different language). The journal will consider secondary publications for all other reasons if the following ICMJE conditions are met:
  1. The authors have received approval from the editors of both journals (the editor concerned with secondary publication must have access to the primary version)
  2. The priority of the primary publication is respected by a publication interval negotiated by both editors with the authors
  3. The paper for secondary publication is intended for a different group of readers; an abbreviated version could be
  4. The secondary version faithfully reflects the data and interpretations of the primary version.
  5. The secondary version informs readers, peers, and documenting agencies that the paper has been published in whole or in part elsewhere—for example, with a note that might read, “This article is based on a study first reported in the [journal title, with full reference]”—and the secondary version cites the primary
  6. The title of the secondary publication should indicate that it is a secondary publication (complete or abridged republication or translation) of a primary publication
  vii.   Manuscript based on the same data base: The journal considers all those manuscripts as independent submissions which are received from either separate research groups or from the same group analyzing the same data set (for example, from a public database, or systematic reviews or meta-analyses of the same evidence) because they may differ in their analytic methods, conclusions, or both. The journal will give preference to the manuscript submitted first if the data interpretation and conclusions are similar. Secondary analyses of clinical trial data should cite any primary publication and should clearly state that it contains secondary analyses/results, and use the same identifying trial registration number as the primary trial.
viii. Correspondence: The journal has a mechanism for submitting  comments,  questions,  or  criticisms  about published articles through a correspondence section or online forum. Correspondence may be edited for length, grammatical correctness, and journal style and screen discourteous, inaccurate comments. Editors will have the prerogative to reject correspondence
ix.   Fees The journal charge no fees required for manuscript processing or publishing material.  
x.  Supplements The journal considers supplements as collections of papers that deal with related issues or topics, published as a separate issue of the journal or as part of a regular issue. The journal may publish supplements, theme issues, and special series from time to time. The same principles of authorship, conflict of interest, confidentiality, timeliness, peer-review, integrity, scientific misconduct and secondary publication, as discussed under relevant sections will also be applicable to supplements.
xi.  Electronic publishing The journal is published in electronic as well as print version and the policy applies equally to both. The journal does not endorse or take responsibility or liability for any content, advertising, products, or other materials on the external linked sites. The journal independently archive or use a credible repository for the historical record of published material.
xii.  Advertising The journal carries advertising on non-profit basis. The editors will have full and final authority for approving print and online advertisements and for enforcing advertising policy.
xiii. Clinical trial registration: The journal requires registration of clinical trials in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication.
Preamble The Life and science is a medical journal who intends to advance the state of medical art through publishing the highest quality scientific research. The high quality standard can only be achieved if plagiarism is endured or plagrism concept is understood completely by clinicians, investigators, physician-scientists, researchers, policy makers, and public health workers. Generally, In the sciences, ethical writing, scholarly endeavors,  a specific manners are demanded when  any ideas, conclusions, data, are borrowed from others, should be  properly acknowledged.
Aim
This policy is provided :
  • to educate authors with the publishing ethics especially who are less familiar.
  • to publish plagiarism free highest quality scientific research.
  • to give awareness to students, teachers, researchers about plagiarism to avoid it.
  • To capture scientific misconduct and ethical issues at an early stage to reduce the workload for editors and reviewers.
  • to discourage Plagiarism by taking punitive actions against those who found guilty of the act of Plagiarism through regulating and authorizing bodies.

Definitions
Plagiarism, as defined in Concise Oxford Dictionary , “taking and using the thoughts, writing, and invention of another person as one’s own”.
Plagiarism, as defined in HEC Plagrism Policy "taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one's own".  
Categories of Plagiarism
  • Self-Plagiarism: The verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one’s own copyrighted work without citing the original source.
  • Plagiarism of ideas
It occurs when someone’ s idea is being appropriated by  someone else. The  idea may relate to a conclusion, an explanation, a metaphor, a theory, a hypothesis,) in whole or in part, or presented  with superficial modifications without crediting its original source. The true source must be  acknowledged properly.
  • Plagiarism of text
It occurs when someone copy a portion of text or use others' word-for-word (i.e., verbatim) text from another source and did not give appropriate credit to its author.
Universally accepted rule to use others' word-for-word (i.e., verbatim) text is to enclose that information in quotations and to write down specific original source of that text.
Common forms of scientific misconduct
  • Data Falsification: Research data is manipulated to give false impression. It may include false selective reporting of research findings, willful suppression and/or distortion of data. and omission of conflicting data. This includes manipulating images such as micrographs, radiological images, gels, removing“inconvenient” results, changing, adding or omitting data points, etc.
  • Data fabrication: This is related to making up of research findings.
  • Duplicate submission / publication: It occus when the same study is submitted or publish into two journals.
  • Redundant publication (also indicated as ‘salami publishing’): It occurs when one study is fragmented into several parts and submitted to two or more journals.
Permissible limit. Limit Of Plagrism
As per HEC Guidelines (Annex-I),  similarity index  <=18%
Implementation This policy will be implemented immediately after its approval for dealing with acts of plagiarism.
Applicability The plagrism policy is applied to all manuscripts submitted in the life and science journal to get publish. Scruitinization of all submitted manuscripts will be performed  through Turnitin (software for detecting plagiarism) and originality report of all articles will be generated and analyzed. One week will be spend by the focal person to analyze the article.
  1. If the similarity index is greater than 19% then the manuscript will be sent back to the author to revise manuscript and make it down to acceptable limit.
  2. If author fails to submit the manuscript with permissible limit of plagrism after two revisions then the manuscript will be rejected and stop further processing.
   
Guilty of the act of Plagiarism if Plagrism is detected and proved, would be taken as as academic dishonesty and considered to be  punishable offence. The case would be refered immediately to the author’s institution or other regulatory body and requested an investigation. The author institute will conduct an investigation by the Plagiarism committee. Penalities ­of plagiarism will be decided under the guidelines of  HEC Plagiarism policy.  
Reference
  1. HEC Guidelines for plagiarism policy
  2. https://www.springer.com/gp/authors-editors/editors/publishing-ethics-for-journals/4176#c4188
Protection of Research Participants  
  • The journal requires submission of an Institutional Review Committee approval for all researches involving human data. However, approval by a responsible review committee does not prevent the journal editor from forming his own judgment about the ethical conduct of the research
  • When reporting experiments on animals, authors will indicate whether institutional and national standards for the care and use of laboratory animals were
  • The journal requires a written statement by the authors that they have received and archived written patient
Role of Publisher / Editor-In-Chief in Editorial 
  • It is the responsibility of Editor in Chief to appoint and dismiss
  • Editor in Chief will provide editors at the time of their appointment with a contract that clearly states their rights, duties, authority and the general terms of their
  • The editor’s performance will be assessed using mutually agreed-upon measures, including but not limited to readership, manuscript submissions, handling times and various journal
  • Appointments and dismissals will be based on evaluations by a panel of independent experts.
  • The journal adopts the World Association of Medical Editors definition of editorial freedom which states that editor in chief has full authority over the entire editorial content of their journal and the timing of publication of that He will also have the final authority in decisions about advertisements and sponsored content.
  • The editor in chief of journal has an independent editorial board for establishing and maintaining editorial policy and to support editorial
  • The editor in Chief will ensure that appropriate insurance is obtained in the event of legal action against the editors, and will ensure that legal advice is available when If legal problems arise, the editor will inform their legal adviser.
  • The editor will have  direct   access   to   the   highest   level   of   ownership, not to a delegated
  Life and Science follows double-blind peer review process. Initial editorial screening is done for scope and quality, followed by peer review from the subject specialist including national and international. The reviewer’s recommendation process is time bound (four -six weeks). At least two reviews are required before the handling Editor make a decision as to whether to accept, reject, or ask for a 'revise and resubmit' of the submitted paper. Currently, approximately 50% of the manuscripts submitted to Life and Science are desk-rejected, about 35% are rejected after peer review, and 15% are eventually accepted (most after being revised once if not twice). The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles and his decision is final.
Life and Science supports a range of policies to benefit the authors, with respect to providing them with an e-print. E-prints are sent out automatically to the corresponding author of articles published ahead of print and in-print issues. A link is provided to the authors for downloading the article directly from the Life and Science website and forwarding the link to their co-authors, peers, or anyone.

 

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