A Study on Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Spike Protein of SARS-COV-2 in Pakistan

Mahnoor Rizwan, Abdul Ahad, Sadia Aziz, Nazir Ahmed Lone, Tabasum Naz, Muhammad Bilal Khan, Laila Jafri, Liaqat Ali


Objective: To examine the prevalence of antibody IgG/IgM and designing follow-up study of six months and to perform the molecular characterization and sequence analysis of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.
Study Design: Prevalence study.
Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in the Post-Graduate Lab of the National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January 2021 to June 2021.
Methods: 112 suspected patients with mild and severe symptoms were tested by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and all were positive. Antibody profiling of vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and followed up for up to six months.
Results: Ten patients were identified as re-infected and were subsequently re-tested via PCR and DNA sequencing. The IgG/IgM of immunized patients was 11.87IU/mL and 3.87IU/mL in non-immunized individuals. Genomic analysis indicated that all the sequences belong to delta variant (21A and 21J sub-lineages). Mutations were observed in spike protein at I1169V, D950N in 21A and T951I and S254F in 21J sub-lineages.
Conclusion: This study revealed the significance of measuring antibody levels among vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Additionally, mutations in the spike gene of the delta variant of SARS-CoV2 can influence the pathogen’s mutation rate, leading to changes in its transmissibility and pathogenicity.

Keywords: Antibody Quantification, COVID-19, ELISA, Follow-Up, Immunity.

How to cite this: Rizwan M, Ahad A, Aziz S, Lone NA, Naz T, Khan MB, Jafri L, Ali L. A Study on Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Spike Protein of SARS-COV-2 in Pakistan. Life and Science. 2023; 4(4): 458-468. doi: http://doi.org/10.37185/LnS.1.1.400

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