Relationship of Biochemical Parameters and Echocardiogram Findings with Appetite in patients having Reduced Ejection Fraction Heart Failure

Bilal Saeed, Abdul Rehman Arshad, Mehmood Hussain


Objective: To determine the relationship of biochemical parameters and echocardiogram findings with appetite and nutritional status in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Peshawar, Pakistan, from February 2022 to August 2022.
Methods: The study was conducted on adult patients with heart failure for at least three months. Indoor patients, those with hospitalization within the last four weeks, and unwilling patients were excluded. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire and Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire were administered in direct face-to-face interviews. A transthoracic echocardiogram was done to document the left ventricular ejection fraction. Different hematological and biochemical parameters were also analyzed.
Results: There were 76 patients aged 55.92± 15.22 years. Mean mini nutritional assessment and Council on Nutrition appetite questionnaire scores were 17.89± 5.23 and 20.74± 8.19, respectively. Based on mini nutritional assessment scores, 36 were malnourished, 27 were at risk of malnutrition, and 13 had normal nutritional status. Using Council on Nutrition appetite questionnaire scores, 57 were at risk of malnutrition, while 19 had no risk. Left ventricular ejection fraction and hemoglobin were lower in malnourished patients. However, there were no differences in other biochemical parameters amongst patients with good or poor nutritional status.
Conclusion: Patients with heart failure had poor appetite and nutritional status proportionate to the degree of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

Keywords: Anorexia, Ejection Fraction, Heart Failure, Malnutrition.

How to cite this: Saeed B, Arshad AR, Hussain M. Relationship of Biochemical Parameters and Echocardiogram Findings with Appetite and Nutritional Status in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction. Life and Science. 2024; 5(2): 144-150. doi:

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